Anders Celsius

Anders Celsius, a Swedish astronomer, physicist, and mathematician, is best known for his contributions to the field of temperature measurement. Born on November 27, 1701, in Uppsala, Sweden, Celsius’s groundbreaking work in developing the Celsius temperature scale laid the foundation for modern temperature measurement systems. This biography explores the life, achievements, and lasting impact of Anders Celsius.

Early Life and Education:

Anders Celsius was born into a family of scholars and scientists. His father, Nils Celsius, was an astronomy professor at Uppsala University, and his maternal grandfather, Anders Spole, was a mathematician. Growing up in an intellectual environment, Celsius was exposed to scientific pursuits from an early age.

Celsius began his education at home, where he received instruction in various subjects, including mathematics, astronomy, and physics. His father recognized his son’s talent and guided him in his studies. In 1716, at the age of 15, Celsius enrolled at Uppsala University, where he continued to focus on mathematics and astronomy.

Career and Contributions:

After completing his studies at Uppsala University, Celsius embarked on a series of scientific expeditions and research projects. In 1730, he traveled to Germany, Italy, and France, where he met prominent scientists and exchanged ideas. During his travels, Celsius became particularly interested in the measurement of the Earth’s shape and magnetic fields.

Upon returning to Uppsala, Celsius dedicated himself to astronomical research and teaching. He became a professor of astronomy at Uppsala University in 1730 and was appointed director of the university’s observatory in 1733. Celsius’s work focused on improving astronomical instruments and techniques, and he made significant contributions to the field of observational astronomy.

The Celsius Temperature Scale:

Anders Celsius’s most enduring contribution to science is the development of the Celsius temperature scale, which is widely used today. Prior to Celsius, various temperature scales existed, but they lacked a standardized and consistent system. Celsius aimed to create a scale based on scientific principles and universal references.

In 1742, Celsius proposed a scale with 0 degrees representing the boiling point of water and 100 degrees representing the freezing point of water at sea level. Initially, this scale was reversed, with 0 degrees indicating the freezing point and 100 degrees indicating the boiling point. However, the scale was later inverted to its current form to align with other temperature measurement systems.

Celsius’s temperature scale gained popularity, particularly in scientific circles, and it was widely adopted throughout Europe. Its simplicity and intuitive nature made it a practical system for everyday use, and it remains one of the most commonly used temperature scales worldwide.

Other Scientific Contributions:

In addition to his work on temperature measurement, Celsius made significant contributions to other scientific fields. He conducted extensive research on astronomy, particularly on the shape and dimensions of the Earth. Celsius developed new methods for determining latitude and conducted precise measurements of the Earth’s meridian arc, which contributed to the understanding of the Earth’s shape.

Celsius also explored the Earth’s magnetic fields and investigated the periodicity of magnetic variations. He developed a method for measuring the dip angle, which provided insights into the Earth’s magnetic field and its interaction with compass needles.

Personal Life and Legacy:

Anders Celsius led a relatively private and modest life. He was known for his reserved and serious demeanor, dedicating most of his time to his scientific pursuits. Celsius never married and did not have any children.

Tragically, Celsius’s career was cut short when he fell ill in 1744. He passed away on April 25, 1744, at the age of 42, due to tuberculosis. Despite his premature death, Celsius’s contributions to science left a lasting impact on various fields.

Celsius’s temperature scale, which initially faced some resistance and modifications, eventually gained widespread acceptance. It revolutionized temperature measurement, providing a standardized and universally recognized system. Today, the Celsius scale is used in scientific research, meteorology, industry, and everyday life across much of the world.

Celsius’s legacy extends beyond temperature measurement. His advancements in astronomy and geodesy laid the groundwork for future discoveries and techniques in these fields. His dedication to scientific precision and accuracy set a high standard for scientific inquiry and methodology.


Anders Celsius’s pioneering work in temperature measurement, along with his contributions to astronomy and geodesy, established him as a prominent figure in the scientific community. Through the development of the Celsius temperature scale, he provided a practical, intuitive, and universally recognized system for temperature measurement. Celsius’s meticulous research and scientific advancements continue to shape our understanding of the world and influence modern scientific practices. His lasting legacy as a scientist, mathematician, and astronomer underscores his significance in the history of science.

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